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Privacy Policy

Who we are

Our website address is:

What personal data we collect and why we collect it


When visitors leave comments on the site we collect the data shown in the comments form, and also the visitor’s IP address and browser user agent string to help spam detection.

An anonymized string created from your email address (also called a hash) may be provided to the Gravatar service to see if you are using it. The Gravatar service privacy policy is available here: After approval of your comment, your profile picture is visible to the public in the context of your comment.


If you upload images to the website, you should avoid uploading images with embedded location data (EXIF GPS) included. Visitors to the website can download and extract any location data from images on the website.

Embedded content from other websites

Articles on this site may include embedded content (e.g. videos, images, articles, etc.). Embedded content from other websites behaves in the exact same way as if the visitor has visited the other website.

These websites may collect data about you, use cookies, embed additional third-party tracking, and monitor your interaction with that embedded content, including tracking your interaction with the embedded content if you have an account and are logged in to that website.


    • Facebook Ads conversion tracking (Facebook pixel), Google Analytics, Google Analytics with anonymized IP and Hotjar Form Analysis & Conversion Funnels

      Personal Data: Cookies; Usage Data

    • Google Analytics Advertising Reporting Features

      Personal Data: Cookies; unique device identifiers for advertising (Google Advertiser ID or IDFA, for example); various types of Data as specified in the privacy policy of the service.

Who we share your data with

This type of service allows User Data to be utilized for advertising communication purposes. These communications are displayed in the form of banners and other advertisements on this Website, possibly based on User interests.
This does not mean that all Personal Data are used for this purpose. Information and conditions of use are shown below.
Some of the services listed below may use Cookies or other Identifiers to identify Users or they may use the behavioral retargeting technique, i.e. displaying ads tailored to the User’s interests and behavior, including those detected outside this Website. For more information, please check the privacy policies of the relevant services.
In addition to any opt-out feature offered by any of the services below, Users may opt out by visiting the Network Advertising Initiative opt-out page.

Users may also opt-out of certain advertising features through applicable device settings, such as the device advertising settings for mobile phones or ads settings in general.

Facebook Lookalike Audience (Facebook, Inc.)

Facebook Lookalike Audience is an advertising and behavioral targeting service provided by Facebook, Inc. that uses Data collected through Facebook Custom Audience in order to display ads to Users with similar behavior to Users who are already in a Custom Audience list on the base of their past use of this Website or engagement with relevant content across the Facebook apps and services.
On the base of these Data, personalized ads will be shown to Users suggested by Facebook Lookalike Audience.

Users can opt out of Facebook’s use of cookies for ads personalization by visiting this opt-out page.

Personal Data processed: Cookies; Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy PolicyOpt Out.

Category of personal data collected according to CCPA: internet information.

This processing constitutes a sale based on the definition under the CCPA. In addition to the information in this clause, the User can find information regarding how to opt out of the sale in the section detailing the rights of Californian consumers.

Google Ad Manager

Google Ad Manager is an advertising service provided by Google LLC or by Google Ireland Limited, depending on the location this Website is accessed from, that allows the Owner to run advertising campaigns in conjunction with external advertising networks that the Owner, unless otherwise specified in this document, has no direct relationship with. In order to opt out from being tracked by various advertising networks, Users may make use of Youronlinechoices. In order to understand Google’s use of data, consult Google’s partner policy.
This service uses the “DoubleClick” Cookie, which tracks use of this Website and User behavior concerning ads, products and services offered.  

Users may decide to disable all the DoubleClick Cookies by going to: Google Ad Settings.

Personal Data processed: Cookies; Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy Policy; Ireland – Privacy Policy.

Category of personal data collected according to CCPA: internet information.

This processing constitutes a sale based on the definition under the CCPA. In addition to the information in this clause, the User can find information regarding how to opt out of the sale in the section detailing the rights of Californian consumers.

Google AdSense

Google AdSense is an advertising service provided by Google LLC or by Google Ireland Limited, depending on the location this Website is accessed from. This service uses the “DoubleClick” Cookie, which tracks use of this Website and User behavior concerning ads, products and services offered.
Users may decide to disable all the DoubleClick Cookies by going to: Google Ad Settings.

Personal Data processed: Cookies; Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy PolicyOpt Out; Ireland – Privacy PolicyOpt Out.

Category of personal data collected according to CCPA: internet information.

This processing constitutes a sale based on the definition under the CCPA. In addition to the information in this clause, the User can find information regarding how to opt out of the sale in the section detailing the rights of Californian consumers.

Microsoft Advertising (Microsoft Corporation)

Microsoft Advertising is an advertising service provided by Microsoft Corporation.

Personal Data processed: Cookies; Usage Data.

Place of processing: United States – Privacy PolicyOpt Out.

Category of personal data collected according to CCPA: internet information.

This processing constitutes a sale based on the definition under the CCPA. In addition to the information in this clause, the User can find information regarding how to opt out of the sale in the section detailing the rights of Californian consumers.

Index Exchange, Inc.

Index Exchange, Inc. (“Index Exchange”) believes in all Internet users’ rights to privacy. This Policy explains the information collection, use, and disclosure practices of Index Exchange. It applies to all information received by Index Exchange whether in electronic, paper or verbal format.


The Index Exchange Online Advertising Exchange (“Index Platform”) prides itself on providing an atmosphere that is non-disruptive to Internet users. Our proprietary ad personalizationmethodologies enable advertisers to effectively direct their campaigns to the audience(s) they are looking to reach without engaging in profiling practices. Services offered by Index Exchange include a Web-based advertising exchange marketplace that enables publishers, advertisers, and ad networks to efficiently market, buy and sell digital and mobile advertising and ad inventory.

Through its ad server, Index Exchange also acts as a service provider to enable its publishers, advertisers, ad networks and other clients to collect and use data for advertising purposes on their digital and mobile platforms across the Internet. Publishers may use our services to process consumer data, which they collect or source. Their data collection, use, and sharing practices may be governed by their own privacy policies and differ from those found in Index Exchange’s Privacy Policy. We encourage you to refer to the privacy policies of any websites you visit and apps you use, to learn about their privacy practices before disclosing any personal information to them.


Index Exchange prides itself on conducting business in a transparent and open manner. In line with those values, we support efforts for self-regulation in the internet-based advertising industry.


Index Exchange is a member in good standing of the Network Advertising Initiative (NAI), a cooperative of online marketing and analytics companies committed to responsible data collection for digital advertising, building consumer awareness, and establishing responsible business and data management practices and standards. Index Exchange adheres to the NAI Code of Conduct in all its operations.


Index Exchange adheres to the standards and practices outlined by The Digital Advertising Alliance, a consortium of the leading national advertising and marketing trade associations, promoting a self-regulatory program for online interest-based advertising. More information on the program can be found here.


In general, like most standard website servers, Index Exchange uses log files to track transactions. These log files include internet protocol (IP) addresses, browser types used, postal or zip codes, the internet service provider (ISP) utilised, referring/exit pages, platform type, date/time stamps, device IDs, and number of clicks among others. This information is then used to analyze trends, administer the site, and personalizeadvertisements to users accordingly. Index Exchange does not collect a website user’s Personally Identifiable Information (PII) as defined under United States federal law. However, in the course of and for purposes of conducting its business, Index Exchange may collect and process the following consumer information that is considered Personal Information (PI) under the Canadian Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) or Personal Data under the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR):

(1) browser and device information received from publishers is shared with advertisers and agencies for responding to requests for advertisements, forecast advertising inventory and troubleshooting any operation issues related to the Index Platform;

(2) IP addresses, including both IPv4 and IPv6 are used to bid on advertising inventory;

(3) geo-location data is used to bid on advertising inventory;

(4) Precise Location Data (data obtained from a device about the physical location of the device) is used to bid on advertising inventory;

(5) GPS coordinates, where available;

(6) unique Index Exchange UserIDs, stored in browser cookies, are used for profiles on the ad server;

(7) mobile device identifiers are used to understand mobile traffic and are shared with advertisers and agencies to personalize the advertising experience;

(8) Pixel Data (data obtained through or in connection with the placement of any pixel mechanism) is used as part of the user matching process;

(9) people identifiers provided by Index Exchange’s partners are associated to audience segments, and shared with advertisers and agencies;

(10) data on whether a user viewed or clicked on an Ad is shared with advertisers and agencies.

Index Exchange’s internal processes treat personal data in accordance with regulatory requirements and applicable privacy laws to ensure that information is stored securely and used only for allowed and intended purposes.

Index Exchange may combine information that does not directly identify an individual with data collected from other sources to provide publishers, advertisers and ad networks with information to improve the relevance of advertising presented to users and determine whether to bid on ad inventory. In addition, although Index Exchange does not directly engage in Cross-App Advertising, our technology may collect and/or pass through Mobile Device IDs (the unique identifier assigned to a device by the manufacturer) or Advertising IDs (for iOS 6 and later), instead of cookies, to recognize you.

Do Not Track Signal

Index Exchange does not honor the ‘DNT’ browser signal. Instead, we utilize the cookie based opt-out mechanisms to allow users to opt-out of all advertising. For more information, please see the “Your Choices” section below.

Cross–Device Linking

Cross-Device Linking is the process of making assumptions that certain devices are related to each other, i.e. they belong to the same user/household. Index Exchange may engage in Cross Device Linking for personalized advertising, ad delivery, and reporting. If you would like to opt-out of having Cross-Device Linking used by Index Exchange on your devices, please see the “Your Choices” section below.

Cookies (HTTP Cookies and HTML5 Cookies or Local Storage)

An HTTP cookie is an object that stores a small amount of data on behalf of a browser on a given device. By saving information in a cookie, websites can remember preferences or recognize browsers from one visit to another or from one website to another. Index Exchange uses both session-only and persistent cookies. More specifically, Index Exchange uses certain cookies that last only for the duration of a user’s internet session and expire when that user closes his or her browser, as well as certain other cookies that are used to remember a user when he or she returns to a website and will last for longer.

HTML5 cookies, also known as HTML5 Web Storage, or local storage, is a technology that allows a website or application to store information locally on a user’s computer or mobile device. Index Exchange uses HTML5 cookies, or local storage, in connection with its platform and website to support publisher monetization objectives and speed up page load time.

Index Exchange ultimately uses these technologies (referred to as “cookies” going forward) to facilitate transactions between buyers and sellers of digital advertising inventory and, among other things, to enable its demand-side partners, publishers, data management platforms, and other third-party clients (collectively referred to as “Index Exchange clients/partners” moving forward) to effectively: (a) target advertisements to users of digital media properties, (b) evaluate and assess their advertisements and campaigns; and (c) view and enforce user opt-out choices. Index Exchange’s platform further uses cookies to associate information that does not directly identify an individual user with browsers and devices, so that Index Exchange’s platform and Index Exchange clients/partners can then use the information to select advertisements and campaigns for delivery via the Index Exchange platform. Index Exchange engages in cookie syncing, which is the matching of Index Exchange cookie IDs to Index Exchange clients’/partners’ cookie IDs.

Index Exchange collects and stores IDs from a variety of domains, including and These IDs are stored in either Index Exchange’s domain ( or the publisher’s first party domain.

PII, PI, and Personal Data of Index Exchange Clients

Registering to become a member of the Index Platform and use of the Index Exchange User Interface, either as an advertiser or a publisher, requires the submission of PI, PII or Personal Data to Index Exchange. This can include the full name, mailing and/or billing address, email address, company name, and website URL. Index Exchange uses this information to service its accounts and respond to inbound inquiries related to sales or technical support requests. Communications to business users are related to the Advertising Exchange. The Index Exchange User Interface also uses Google Analytics technology to monitor traffic on the UI. All such information submitted is held by Index Exchange in strict confidence and as prescribed by corresponding regulatory authorities.

Index Exchange does not engage in any form of distribution or sale of PII, PI or Personal Data to third parties for their own promotional use. Index Exchange does not sell, supply, or otherwise make user PII, PI or Personal Data available to any third party under any circumstances, unless ordered to do so by a court of competent jurisdiction.

Information Obtained from Third Parties

Index Exchange may obtain data from third party companies for the purpose of informing ad selection. This data may include Personal Data as defined under the GDPR. Advertisers who are clients of Index Exchange may collect PII and Personal Data on their own websites. These details are provided directly by the individual Internet user through online order forms, contests, etc. PII or Personal Data provided through an advertiser’s website is not visible to Index Exchange while being entered, nor provided to Index Exchange at any time in the future. This personal data collected by the advertiser is subject to the privacy policy of the individual advertiser involved.


Web Browser Option to Opt–Out

Some of the ads you see on the internet or in applications on your mobile device are tailored to your interests and based on your activity online or in the applications on your mobile device. This type of ad tailoring — sometimes called “interest-based” advertising — is enabled through various technologies, including browser cookies, mobile advertising identifiers as well as other non-cookie technologies. Tailored digital ads help support the free products, services and content you enjoy online. To help protect your privacy, Index Exchange (along with other NAI members) has voluntarily agreed to abide by high NAI standards including offering an opt-out mechanism.

Opting out of interest-based advertising means that you will no longer be shown ads that have been tailored to your interests. It does not mean you will no longer see advertising online. When you opt-out, an opt-out cookie will be stored in your web browser signaling your opt-out preference to NAI members including Index Exchange.

Please note that if your browser is configured to block third-party cookies, then the opt out cookie may not work. If you delete your browser cookies, you will need to opt out again. The opt-out will not apply to the specific browser in which you set it. The opt-out process must be repeated for each different browser.







Index Exchange may retain data for as long as needed to provide services. We may retain data even after an account has been closed or is no longer engaged in business with Index Exchange if retention is reasonably necessary to comply with our legal obligations or meet regulatory requirements, resolve disputes, prevent fraud and abuse, or enforce our Privacy Policy or our contractual obligations. We also retain personal data for as long as is necessary to provide support-related reporting and trend analysis which is thirteen (13) months. After 13 months, we de-personalize data by creating data sets that cannot be traced back to individuals. Personal data will be destroyed according to our data destruction process.


Index Exchange follows strict Information Security policies to protect personal data submitted to us, both during transmission and once we receive it. Although we take steps to secure your information, no method of transmission over the Internet, or method of electronic storage, is 100% secure. Therefore, while we strive to use commercially acceptable means to protect your personal data, we cannot guarantee its absolute security.

In the unlikely event of a confirmed security breach, Index Exchange will investigate and contact impacted persons within 72 hours of the breach.

We reserve the right to disclose your personal data as required by law, in response to a subpoena or similar investigative demand, a court order, or a request for cooperation from a law enforcement or other government agency; when we believe that disclosure is necessary to protect or exercise our legal rights; or to defend against legal claims.


Index Exchange transfers data from the European Union and Switzerland to the United States in accordance with the EU-US and Swiss-US Privacy Shield Frameworks. More information on the Privacy Shield program set forth by the U.S. Department of Commerce can be found at

Index Exchange is subject to the investigatory and enforcement powers of the U.S. Federal Trade Commission for any violations of the EU-US or Swiss-US Privacy Shield Framework. Index Exchange may be held responsible if third party controllers to whom it transfers personal information or third party agents it engages to process this data on its behalf, act in a manner inconsistent with the Privacy Shield Principles. Index Exchange is required to disclose personal information in response to lawful requests to meet national security or law enforcement requirements.

Access to and Deletion of Personal Data

Individuals residing in the European Union or Switzerland have the right to access any of their Personal Data retained by us. You also have the right to have the data corrected, amended or deleted where it is inaccurate or processed in violation of the Principles.

You can make a request to access or delete your Personal Data via Index Exchange’s User Access Request portal.

How long we retain your data

If you leave a comment, the comment and its metadata are retained indefinitely. This is so we can recognize and approve any follow-up comments automatically instead of holding them in a moderation queue.

For users that register on our website (if any), we also store the personal information they provide in their user profile. All users can see, edit, or delete their personal information at any time (except they cannot change their username). Website administrators can also see and edit that information.

What rights you have over your data

If you have an account on this site, or have left comments, you can request to receive an exported file of the personal data we hold about you, including any data you have provided to us. You can also request that we erase any personal data we hold about you. This does not include any data we are obliged to keep for administrative, legal, or security purposes.

Where we send your data

Visitor comments may be checked through an automated spam detection service.

Your contact information

Email : [email protected]

Information for Californian consumers

This part of the document integrates with and supplements the information contained in the rest of the privacy policy and is provided by the business running this Website and, if the case may be, its parent, subsidiaries and affiliates (for the purposes of this section referred to collectively as “we”, “us”, “our”).

The provisions contained in this section apply to all Users who are consumers residing in the state of California, United States of America, according to “The California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018” (Users are referred to below, simply as “you”, “your”, “yours”), and, for such consumers, these provisions supersede any other possibly divergent or conflicting provisions contained in the privacy policy.

This part of the document uses the term “personal information“ as it is defined in The California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA).

Your California privacy rights and how to exercise them

The right to know and to portability

You have the right to request that we disclose to you:

  • the categories and sources of the personal information that we collect about you, the purposes for which we use your information and with whom such information is shared;
  • in case of sale of personal information or disclosure for a business purpose, two separate lists where we disclose:
    • for sales, the personal information categories purchased by each category of recipient; and
    • for disclosures for a business purpose, the personal information categories obtained by each category of recipient.

The disclosure described above will be limited to the personal information collected or used over the past 12 months.

If we deliver our response electronically, the information enclosed will be “portable”, i.e. delivered in an easily usable format to enable you to transmit the information to another entity without hindrance – provided that this is technically feasible.

The right to request the deletion of your personal information

You have the right to request that we delete any of your personal information, subject to exceptions set forth by the law (such as, including but not limited to, where the information is used to identify and repair errors on this Website, to detect security incidents and protect against fraudulent or illegal activities, to exercise certain rights etc.).

If no legal exception applies, as a result of exercising your right, we will delete your personal information and direct any of our service providers to do so.

How to exercise your rights

To exercise the rights described above, you need to submit your verifiable request to us by contacting us via the details provided in this document.

For us to respond to your request, it’s necessary that we know who you are. Therefore, you can only exercise the above rights by making a verifiable request which must:

  • provide sufficient information that allows us to reasonably verify you are the person about whom we collected personal information or an authorized representative;
  • describe your request with sufficient detail that allows us to properly understand, evaluate, and respond to it.

We will not respond to any request if we are unable to verify your identity and therefore confirm the personal information in our possession actually relates to you.

If you cannot personally submit a verifiable request, you can authorize a person registered with the California Secretary of State to act on your behalf.

If you are an adult, you can make a verifiable request on behalf of a minor under your parental authority.

You can submit a maximum number of 2 requests over a period of 12 months.

How and when we are expected to handle your request

We will confirm receipt of your verifiable request within 10 days and provide information about how we will process your request.

We will respond to your request within 45 days of its receipt. Should we need more time, we will explain to you the reasons why, and how much more time we need. In this regard, please note that we may take up to 90 days to fulfill your request.

Our disclosure(s) will cover the preceding 12 month period.

Should we deny your request, we will explain you the reasons behind our denial.

We do not charge a fee to process or respond to your verifiable request unless such request is manifestly unfounded or excessive. In such cases, we may charge a reasonable fee, or refuse to act on the request. In either case, we will communicate our choices and explain the reasons behind it

Additional information

Personal Data (or Data)

Any information that directly, indirectly, or in connection with other information — including a personal identification number — allows for the identification or identifiability of a natural person.

Usage Data

Information collected automatically through this Website (or third-party services employed in this Website), which can include: the IP addresses or domain names of the computers utilized by the Users who use this Website, the URI addresses (Uniform Resource Identifier), the time of the request, the method utilized to submit the request to the server, the size of the file received in response, the numerical code indicating the status of the server’s answer (successful outcome, error, etc.), the country of origin, the features of the browser and the operating system utilized by the User, the various time details per visit (e.g., the time spent on each page within the Application) and the details about the path followed within the Application with special reference to the sequence of pages visited, and other parameters about the device operating system and/or the User’s IT environment.


The individual using this Website who, unless otherwise specified, coincides with the Data Subject.

Data Subject

The natural person to whom the Personal Data refers.

Data Processor (or Data Supervisor)

The natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body which processes Personal Data on behalf of the Controller, as described in this privacy policy.

Data Controller (or Owner)

The natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body which, alone or jointly with others, determines the purposes and means of the processing of Personal Data, including the security measures concerning the operation and use of this Website. The Data Controller, unless otherwise specified, is the Owner of this Website.

This Website (or this Application)

The means by which the Personal Data of the User is collected and processed.


The service provided by this Website as described in the relative terms (if available) and on this site/application.

European Union (or EU)

Unless otherwise specified, all references made within this document to the European Union include all current member states to the European Union and the European Economic Area.


Cookies are Trackers consisting of small sets of data stored in the User’s browser.


Tracker indicates any technology – e.g Cookies, unique identifiers, web beacons, embedded scripts, e-tags and fingerprinting – that enables the tracking of Users, for example by accessing or storing information on the User’s device.

Legal information

This privacy statement has been prepared based on provisions of multiple legislations, including Art. 13/14 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679 (General Data Protection Regulation).

This privacy policy relates solely to this Website, if not stated otherwise within this document.